English for Agriculture - Beginners and Intermediate

Irrigation Equipment

Irrigation is the method in which water is supplied to plants at regular intervals for agriculture. Irrigation has been a central feature of agriculture for over 5,000 years and it is the product of many cultures.

It is used to assist in the growing of agricultural crops, maintenance of landscapes, and revegetation of disturbed soils in dry areas and during times when do not rain enough. Also, irrigation has a few other uses in crop production, which include protecting plants so they do not get frozen, avoiding weed growth in grain fields and preventing consolidation. Agriculture that relies only on direct rainfall is called rain-fed or dry land farming.

Irrigation systems are also used for dust suppression, disposal of sewage, and in mining. Irrigation is often studied together with drainage, which is the natural or artificial removal of surface and sub-surface water from a given area

Complex and simple watering systems are performed to keep crops hydrated. Some topographical engineering is required for most irrigation techniques. Below will be different irrigation systems which farmers normally use:

Surface Irrigation: Surface irrigation has moved into a wide design of configurations, such as: Basin irrigation, floods a near-level field surrounded by channel with water up to the crop stalks, before draining as water runs downstream. Furrow irrigation, fills long basins dug between crop rows. Border irrigation digs long and wide bays that are flooded like a basin

Overhead Irrigation: High pressure water is pumped to an elevated gun, sprinkler, or rotor that make it looks if it would be raining. It can be can be static mounts or attached to vehicles

 Center Pivot Irrigation: This system connects overhead sprinklers and nozzles via a truss to a centralized water supply. The truss is equipped with wheels and rotated 360° to water crops. 

Wheel Line Irrigation: a truss with wheels is equipped with nozzles, just as with center pivot systems, but the truss is static and must be moved by hand or towed to a new location. 

Drip Irrigation: Hoses or pipes are run through fields to supply water at each individual plant. This reduces run-off and the amount of fertilizer and water required.

Wick Irrigation: Standing reservoirs water plants via capillary action created by nylon or polyester fabric materials. This method is self-watering but requires periodic manual maintenance.

 In-Ground Irrigation: Piping and sprinklers are hidden in settled locations all over a field or pasture. Valves, pumps, and controllers route water to exacts systems and zones for arranged intervals. Smart controllers can sense water levels and irrigate automatically.

Last modified: Thursday, 9 June 2016, 4:30 PM
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