English for Agriculture - Beginners and Intermediate
When you think of fruit, you probably think of something sweet and juicy to eat. Apples, berries and oranges are all fruit. Scientists think of fruit as a part of a plant that has seeds. The fruit might not be sweet. In fact, it might not be edible at all. Fruit is usually soft and juicy, but not always. Sometimes it is covered by a hard, protective shell. Think about a watermelon, for example. It is soft and juicy on the inside, but the outside is tough. Walnuts and other nuts are technically a fruit even though they are very hard. However, it is still a fruit. They make up a large portion of our diets and they can be eaten raw, frozen, stewed, cooked, or dried.
Many foods that we consider vegetables are actually fruits. The botanical definition of fruit is a seed-bearing part of a flowering plant or tree that can be eaten as food. By those standards, foods such as avocados, cucumbers, squash, and even tomatoes are all fruits. From a culinary viewpoint, a fruit is usually thought of as any sweet-tasting plant product with seeds, instead a vegetable is any savory or less sweet-tasting plant.
Types of Fruit
All fruits may be classified into three major groups: simple, aggregate, or multiple.
Simple Fruits: These ones are developed from the ovary of a single flower. Most fruits we have in our backyard are simple fruits. Simple fruits can be fleshy, or dry.
Fleshy Fruits: They are fruits that have a flesh area between the seeds and the skin. When you eat a fleshy fruit, you eat the flesh instead of the seeds, and some types of fleshy fruits have an edible skin. There are about five types of them: berries, drupes, pomes, hesperidiums, and pepos.
Berries: The entire fruit is fleshy except for a thin skin and the seeds contained inside. Example of these fruits are bananas, grapes, blueberries, avocados, tomatoes, eggplant, currant, persimmons, and raspberries.
Pomes: This is a fruit with an inedible core surrounded by edible flesh. Ex: Apples, pears, quince, chokeberry, juneberry, haw, medlar, rowan.
Hesperidiums: These modified berries have a leathery skin. In some cases, portions of the skin are edible, but it may not taste good. These are citrus fruits such as lemon, lime, grapefruit, orange, citron, mandarin.
Pepos: They are another type of modified berries, which have flesh within a hard skin that is mostly inedible. Ex: Watermelons, pumpkins, cucumber, squash, honeydew melon, and sunberry.
Dry fruits are divided into two categories:
Dehiscent fruits split their hard shells to free the mature seed. Example of the dehiscent fruits are the legume (the pod of the pea and bean), which splits at both edges, and the follicle, which splits on only one side (milkweed and larkspur)
Indehiscent fruits do not split; do not by nature open to shed seeds; instead, they spray their fruits into the environment and stick them to an animal for spreading them. Some of these are the poppy, snapdragon, lily, mustard, and the achenes (sunflowers, dandelions and buckwheat). One of the most important is the achene that consists of a single seed that is attached to the wall of the ovary at only one point. The wall of the mature ovary is also thin and undeveloped so when it dries out the fruit formed has a seed-like appearance. Do not be confused to learn that the sunflower "seed" is actually a fruit. Remove the dried up wall of the fruit and the sunflower seed is found underneath. Other examples of this fruit are corn, wheat, rice, rye, barley, oats, and filberts.
It results from the joining of several ovaries of the same flower. It differs from simple fruits in that each single flower instead of having just one pistil carry several and the matured pistils stick, or "aggregate" together to form the final fruit. Examples include blackberries and strawberries. Raspberries.
It is a fruit formed from the fusion of the ovaries of many different flowers (inflorescence) which develop closely together to form one bigger fruit. Examples are pineapples, mulberries, osage-orange and breadfruit.
Here we explain some of the main fruits we can find in agriculture:
· Apple. Apples are the most popular of all fruits and generally available all year round.
· Avocado. Avocados are the only fruit that contain fat.
· Bananas. Bananas are rich in potassium, have high-energy value and are good for growing children and athletes.
· Lemon. Rarely eaten on its own, lemons are indispensable ingredients in the kitchen.
· Mandarins or Tangerines. Mandarins are named after the city of Tangier in Morocco.
· Mango. Mangoes grow in many tropical climates worldwide. Mangoes also make excellent ice creams, sorbets, sauces and drinks like smoothies.
· Oranges. Oranges are best eaten in their natural state but can be used in different ways. Such as desserts, fruit salads, ice creams and juices. It can be squeezed for juice or used to marinate poultry or fish.
· Pears. Pear should always be bought when they are in perfect condition as they can get damage quickly.
· Pineapple. Derived from the Spanish word 'pina' meaning pinecone.Watermelon. They have a lot of water that means they are low in calories.